You have succeeded! You have been accepted by Medicare Disability. Now, you want to know how long you can stay on your disability. This is actually an easy answer. You can stay on disability the rest of your life.
Unless you recover from your medical condition, Medicare Disability is considered a life long event. Anyone on on disability is not expected to be able to ever return to his former job, and would be limited at another job. However, if you commit fraud about your condition or do not report any earnings you make honestly, you could get bumped off disability regardless of your condition. Since Medicare Disability is part of Social Security, any fraud also committed through Medicare or Medicaid can also have you removed. So make sure you are honest and above board on all Social Security entities.
As far as income goes, if you earn enough income to come off payments, you do not lose your eligibility if later on you can no longer earn income. If you company moves, closes down or you become unable to work, you can go back on Medicare Disability without going through the whole application process again. This is to encourage people to work as much as they can.
As far as your medical condition goes, Medicare Disability will check on you every five years. They will send you a review to be filled out. From this review, you will either be cleared for another five years, or need additional forms from your doctor. Sometimes it takes longer than five years; my first review was actually at almost seven years. If this review goes against you, you can lose your disability, but most reviews are simple and go in your favor. There are processes where you can appeal if you are turned down, but the disability has a hard time going against your physician. Sometimes this results in a visit to one of their physicians. I have to say the only time this happened to me “their” physician rated my condition worse than my physician did. Once on Medicare Disability, though, you should be able to stay on it for a long time.